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Inductive Load

Generally speaking, the inductive load is the load that applies the principle of electromagnetic induction (with inductance parameters), such as high-power electrical products (like refrigerators, air conditioners, etc.). The inductive load will increase the power factor of the circuit, and the current through the inductive load cannot abrupt change. At startup, the inductive load requires a much larger starting current (approximately 3-7 times) than the current required to maintain normal operation. For example, the starting current of an asynchronous motor is 5-7 times the rated value, and the starting current of the DC motor is slightly larger than the starting current of the AC motor; some metal-halide lamps have a turn-on time of up to 10 minutes, and their pulse currents up to 100 times steady state current.
Furthermore, when the power is turned on or off, the inductive load will produce a counter-electromotive force (usually 1-2 times the supply voltage), and the counter electromotive force(abbreviated counter EMF or simply CEMF) will be superimposed with the power supply voltage, and the resulting voltage is up to three times the supply voltage. So, when the load type is an inductive load, the output terminal of solid-state relay should connect a varistor with a withstand voltage of 1.6-1.9 times the load voltage. The counter EMF is an indefinite value that varies with L and di/dt, and if the current rate of change (di / dt) is too high, the SSR will be damaged. In practical applications, CEMF can be reduced by series inductance L, and the magnitude of the L inductance depends on the size and cost.

Q: What are the characteristics of the inductive load (when working)?
A: Inductive loads are lagging (current lags voltage). In the DC circuit, the inductive load allows current to flow through and energy to be stored in the inductor, and the current lags behind the voltage. In the AC circuit, the current phase lags behind the voltage phase (compared to the power supply), and the phase can lag a quarter cycle (or 90 degrees) at the maximum.

Q: Which are inductive loads?
A: Lamps that rely on energized gas to emit light (like daylight lamps, high-pressure sodium lamps or HPS lamps, mercury lamps, metal-halide lamps, etc.), and high-power electrical equipment (like motor-based equipment, compressors, relays, etc.).

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